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British chemist Alfred Lucas applied chemical analyses to Egyptian mummies during this same period, which returned many results about the types of substances used in embalming.

Lucas also made significant contributions to the analysis of Tutankhamun in 1922.

The first modern scientific examinations of mummies began in 1901, conducted by professors at the English-language Government School of Medicine in Cairo, Egypt.

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The tool was a rod, made of an organic material, that was used to break apart the brain to allow it to drain out of the nose.

This discovery helped to dispel the claim within Herodotus' works that the rod had been a hook made of iron.

As Egypt gained more prosperity, burial practices became a status symbol for the wealthy as well.

This cultural hierarchy lead to the creation of elaborate tombs, and more sophisticated methods of embalming.

Earlier experimentation in 1994 by researchers Bob Brier and Ronald Wade supported these findings.

While attempting to replicate Egyptian mummification, Brier and Wade discovered that removal of the brain was much easier when the brain was liquefied and allowed to drain with the help of gravity, as opposed to trying to pull the organ out piece-by-piece with a hook.

In 1992, the First World Congress on Mummy Studies was held in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife in the Canary Islands.

More than 300 scientists attended the Congress to share nearly 100 years of collected data on mummies.

Mummies of humans and other animals have been found on every continent, Many of the Egyptian animal mummies are sacred ibis, and radiocarbon dating suggests that the Egyptian Ibis mummies that have been analyzed were from time frame that falls between approximately 450 and 250 BC.

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